Aihearkisto: Tietojenkäsittelytieteet

ICT-Related Intangibles and Organizational Innovation: Indicators for Improving Connectedness and Flexibility

Abstract: In this paper we address the role of ICT-related intangible assets in organizational innovation. We focus on two important innovation enablers: first, connectedness, the ability of individuals to create and maintain connections to each other; and second, organizational flexibility to adapt to changing needs. For connectedness and flexibility, an agile ICT infrastructure and information management services are needed. Through a Delphi study, we identified several factors hindering organizational innovation, and formulated a set of indicators and related metrics for improvement. We conclude that it is necessary to consider ICT-related factors when organizations pursue improving their innovativeness. However, ICT solutions do not lead to organizational innovativeness independent of other organizational factors and people. If the organization is well-functioning, suitable ICT solutions can provide important added value for its innovation activities.

Reference: Koskinen, M., Luomala, J. & Maaranen, P. (2012). ICT-Related Intangibles and Organizational Innovation: Indicators for Improving Connectedness and Flexibility. Human Technology: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Humans in ICT Environments, 8(1), 24-45.

Available online:
https://humantechnology.jyu.fi/archive/vol-8/issue-1/koskinen-luomala-etal8_24-45

Boundary Actors in User-Developer Communication

Abstract: Boundary actors are individuals located and acting in the intersection of different groups intended to enhance and support communication and learning across group boundaries. We review 13 articles addressing boundary acting in user-developer communication in IS journals and identify different tasks of, and requirements for boundary acting in cross-boundary communication. The findings are reflected upon a layered model of communication. The model identifies different layers of meta-knowledge that human beings use for interpreting messages: social knowledge, working knowledge, content knowledge, symbolic knowledge, and computational knowledge. Communication is not possible without this meta-knowledge. Our findings suggest that social knowledge is needed for understanding and learning to take place in boundary acting. By constituting the wider context of the communication situation, social knowledge seems essential for correct interpretations to occur also on the other layers of communication. It is necessary for people who communicate to acknowledge and adopt each other’s meta-knowledge to be able to achieve mutual understanding in a communication situation.

Reference: Koskinen, M. & Pirinen, A. 2007. Boundary Actors in User-Developer Communication. In T. Tiainen, H. Isomäki, M. Korpela, A. Mursu, P. Nykänen, M.-K. Paakki & S. Pekkola (Eds.) Proceedings of the 30th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia – IRIS30. Net Publications D-2007-9, Department of Computer Sciences. Tampere, Finland: University of Tampere.

Available online: 2007-IRIS30.pdf

On the Role of Interpretation Schemes in Organizational IS Implementation

Abstract: The objective of this study is to clarify how interpretation schemes held by people involved in organizational IS change affect implementation efforts and the outcomes of user participation. It is found that interpretation schemes are dealt with in many ways in IS literature and the approaches are diverse and scattered. Based on the findings, It is asserted that during IS change, not only ”tangible” changes are made, but first and foremost changes are needed to occur in the interpretation schemes that give meaning to the phenomena changed. It is also suggested that the outcomes of user participation are mediated by the interpretation schemes of the participants and, consequently, the effects of participation are contingent on the entire social and personal web of interpretations. This means that generalizable causal outcomes of participation cannot be formed and ultimately each case must be studied in context.

Reference: Koskinen, M. 2006. On the Role of Interpretation Schemes in Organizational IS Implementation. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-39, 4.-7.1.2006, Kauai, Hawaii.

DOI:10.1109/HICSS.2006.366

Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1579647

Human Orientation in Scandinavian IS Research as It Appears in SJIS

Abstract: A special ‘flavor’ in Scandinavian IS research is an orientation towards organizational and people issues. We take this as a starting point in our study of human-oriented influences in Scandinavian IS research. For this purpose, we review and classify articles published in Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems (SJIS) during 1989-2003. The classification is based on a proposal that IS phenomena comprehend complex semiotic and systemic interactions between IT, organization and institution, and human beings. Each pair of these ‘elements’ is addressed from the viewpoint of systemic and semiotic interaction, and construction. As a result, we find that human-oriented influences are strongest in research on systems construction. In interaction research, the weight is more on organization-oriented issues. Overall, we find that Scandinavian IS research, as represented in SJIS, is overwhelmingly based on the conviction that it is important to understand people in regard to the activities they perform. However, a holistic, multifaceted view of the human being is missing, which leads to a scattered treatment of human issues and viewpoints.

Reference: Koskinen, M., Liimatainen, K. & Pekkola, S. (2005). Human Orientation in Scandinavian IS Research as It Appears in SJIS. In E. Hustad, B.E. Munkvold, K. Rolland & L.S. Flak (toim.) Proceedings of the 28th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS’28). Adger University College, Norja.

Available online: 2005-IRIS28.pdf

Information Systems Research: Scientific Concepts, Language and Change in Evolving Problem Solving Activity

Abstract: There are several types of approaches to specify the contents and boundaries of the IS field, some of which are normative and some descriptive. However, they do not consider the role of scientific language change in problem solving. Research is an ever-continuing “intellectual voyage”, in which both a research community and each individual researcher progress from one understanding to another during time. An essential part of the problem solving activity and its progress and thereby the progress of the field is evolution of language through problem solving. If a conceptual core for Information Systems is ever to be formed, it should at least make sense in regard to the progress of the IS field among its reference disciplines. Currently, such core cannot be identified due to the use of theoretically and linguistically isolated viewpoints to IS research. We need to strive to change our scientific language to convey and bridge gaps between different viewpoints and schools. In this, new conceptual innovations and active reinterpretation of used theories are needed. An inclusive view of the ontology of the field and willingness to actively pursue to evolve one’s language, concepts, and conceptual viewpoints innovatively in research is essential for this.

Reference: Koskinen, M. 2005. Information Systems Research: Scientific Concepts, Language and Change in Evolving Problem Solving Activity. ECIS 2005 Proceedings. Paper 150.

Available online: https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2005/150/

The Human Context of Information Systems

Abstract: In its past, IS research has focused on IT and the organizations that use IT. Human issues have been studied in HCI and the Human Factor Studies of MIS. Yet recently a new wave of attention has emerged to focus more explicitly on issues rising from the human context of information systems. Studies in this area are still scattered, but there seems to exist a common paradigmatic orientation in their basic assumptions of human beings and their interaction. The end-users of information systems should be seen holistically as physical, cognitive, emotional, and social beings, whose communication is rich and uses multiple media. These views add to and improve our understanding of information and knowledge effective in various kinds of human-oriented information systems.

Reference: Koskinen, M., Berki, E., Liimatainen, K. & Jäkälä, M. (2005). The Human Context of Information Systems. Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-38, 4.-6.2005, Big Island, Hawaii.

DOI:10.1109/HICSS.2005.596

Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1385685
Available also at ResearchGate: see page.

Comparing the Applicability of Two Learning Theories for Knowledge Transfer in Information System Implementation Training

Abstract: This study reviews two traditional learning theories from the viewpoint of knowledge transfer in information system implementation training. The main goal of this study is to determine which is more applicable from the view of knowledge transfer in this context. In this study, behaviourist learning theory is found suitable for the transfer of data and information. Being more learner-centered, constructivist learning theory suits better for information system implementation training, as it enables combining system specific knowledge with knowledge of the existing organisational processes. This creates new organisation-specific knowledge necessary for the effective use of the information system product, which is in accordance with the constructivist learning theory and the idea of knowledge creation cycle.

Reference: Eskelinen, J., Kokkinen, A., Koskinen, M. & Tyrväinen, P. (2004). Comparing the Applicability of Two Learning Theories for Knowledge Transfer in Information System Implementation Training.  In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 2004, 206-210.

DOI:10.1109/ICALT.2004.1357404

Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1357404