Avainsana-arkisto: Tieteentutkimus

Tieteen kehittyminen, normit ja rationaalisuus Thomas S. Kuhnin ajattelussa

Minna Koskinen, filosofian perusopintojen essee

Tiivistelmä: Thomas S. Kuhn hahmottelee kirjassaan The Structure of Scientific Revolutions teorian tieteellisten yhteisöjen toimintaa ohjaavista tieteellisistä paradigmoista, niiden muotoutumisesta ja roolista tieteenharjoituksessa sekä lopulta vaihtumisesta ns. tieteellisten vallankumousten kautta. Tämän esseen tarkoituksena on esitellä Kuhnin teoriaa sekä verrata sitä muihin tieteensosiologiassa ja tiedonsosiologiassa esitettyihin näkemyksiin tieteen kehittymisestä sekä tieteen normien ja rationaalisuuden perusteista.

Lähdeviite: Koskinen, M. 2014. Tieteen kehittyminen, normit ja rationaalisuus Thomas. S. Kuhnin ajattelussa. Essee 9.11.2014. Filosofian ja politiikan tutkimuksen perusopinnot. Jyväskylän yliopiston avoin yliopisto.

Saatavilla verkossa: YFIP100Essee.pdf

Human Orientation in Scandinavian IS Research as It Appears in SJIS

Abstract: A special ‘flavor’ in Scandinavian IS research is an orientation towards organizational and people issues. We take this as a starting point in our study of human-oriented influences in Scandinavian IS research. For this purpose, we review and classify articles published in Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems (SJIS) during 1989-2003. The classification is based on a proposal that IS phenomena comprehend complex semiotic and systemic interactions between IT, organization and institution, and human beings. Each pair of these ‘elements’ is addressed from the viewpoint of systemic and semiotic interaction, and construction. As a result, we find that human-oriented influences are strongest in research on systems construction. In interaction research, the weight is more on organization-oriented issues. Overall, we find that Scandinavian IS research, as represented in SJIS, is overwhelmingly based on the conviction that it is important to understand people in regard to the activities they perform. However, a holistic, multifaceted view of the human being is missing, which leads to a scattered treatment of human issues and viewpoints.

Reference: Koskinen, M., Liimatainen, K. & Pekkola, S. (2005). Human Orientation in Scandinavian IS Research as It Appears in SJIS. In E. Hustad, B.E. Munkvold, K. Rolland & L.S. Flak (toim.) Proceedings of the 28th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS’28). Adger University College, Norja.

Available online: 2005-IRIS28.pdf

Information Systems Research: Scientific Concepts, Language and Change in Evolving Problem Solving Activity

Abstract: There are several types of approaches to specify the contents and boundaries of the IS field, some of which are normative and some descriptive. However, they do not consider the role of scientific language change in problem solving. Research is an ever-continuing “intellectual voyage”, in which both a research community and each individual researcher progress from one understanding to another during time. An essential part of the problem solving activity and its progress and thereby the progress of the field is evolution of language through problem solving. If a conceptual core for Information Systems is ever to be formed, it should at least make sense in regard to the progress of the IS field among its reference disciplines. Currently, such core cannot be identified due to the use of theoretically and linguistically isolated viewpoints to IS research. We need to strive to change our scientific language to convey and bridge gaps between different viewpoints and schools. In this, new conceptual innovations and active reinterpretation of used theories are needed. An inclusive view of the ontology of the field and willingness to actively pursue to evolve one’s language, concepts, and conceptual viewpoints innovatively in research is essential for this.

Reference: Koskinen, M. 2005. Information Systems Research: Scientific Concepts, Language and Change in Evolving Problem Solving Activity. ECIS 2005 Proceedings. Paper 150.

Available online: https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2005/150/

The Human Context of Information Systems

Abstract: In its past, IS research has focused on IT and the organizations that use IT. Human issues have been studied in HCI and the Human Factor Studies of MIS. Yet recently a new wave of attention has emerged to focus more explicitly on issues rising from the human context of information systems. Studies in this area are still scattered, but there seems to exist a common paradigmatic orientation in their basic assumptions of human beings and their interaction. The end-users of information systems should be seen holistically as physical, cognitive, emotional, and social beings, whose communication is rich and uses multiple media. These views add to and improve our understanding of information and knowledge effective in various kinds of human-oriented information systems.

Reference: Koskinen, M., Berki, E., Liimatainen, K. & Jäkälä, M. (2005). The Human Context of Information Systems. Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS-38, 4.-6.2005, Big Island, Hawaii.

DOI:10.1109/HICSS.2005.596

Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1385685
Available also at ResearchGate: see page.